Fine-Tuning Llama 2 for English to Hinglish Translation with Axolotl on Replicate

Fine-Tuning Llama 2 for English to Hinglish Translation with Axolotl on Replicate


In the realm of digital communication, the fusion of languages has given rise to intriguing hybrids that not only facilitate better understanding but also enrich cultural exchanges. One such fascinating blend is Hinglish, a portmanteau of Hindi and English, which has seen a meteoric rise in popularity, especially among the younger generations in the Indian subcontinent. This linguistic amalgamation is not just a casual or spoken convenience; it extends its roots deep into the written word, thriving in texts, emails, and the vast expanse of social media.

The Essence of Hinglish

Hinglish is more than just a quirky mix of Hindi and English; it's a cultural phenomenon that reflects the dynamic and evolving landscape of language in India. It incorporates English words seamlessly into Hindi sentences and vice versa, creating a unique dialect that is both familiar and new. This linguistic blend is not only prevalent among bilingual speakers but has also become a staple in modern communication, resonating particularly well with the youth and urban dwellers who navigate both languages with ease.

The Challenge of Translation

Traditionally, language translation systems have focused primarily on converting text from one language to its equivalent in another, often ignoring the nuanced hybrids like Hinglish. These systems typically target Hindi written in the Devanagari script or English in the Latin alphabet, overlooking the rich middle ground where the two converge. The challenge, therefore, lies in creating a translation model that recognizes and appreciates the intricacies of Hinglish, offering accurate and relatable translations for those who communicate in this vibrant linguistic blend.

The Objective

Our ambition is to bridge this gap by fine-tuning a cutting-edge language model specifically for English to Hinglish translation. By leveraging the power of Meta's Llama-2-7b and the versatility of the axolotl training library, we aim to develop a model that understands the subtleties of Hinglish. This model will not only facilitate smoother communication for millions but also celebrate the rich linguistic heritage that Hinglish represents. As we embark on this journey, we invite you to join us in exploring the intricacies of language fusion, the technical challenges of model training, and the immense potential of AI in breaking down language barriers.

The Approach

To achieve our goal, we will delve into the specifics of custom model training, utilizing the axolotl library and the Replicate platform for an efficient and streamlined process. Our guide will cover the preparation of a bespoke dataset comprising English and Hinglish pairs, the intricacies of configuring the training environment, and the nuances of model fine-tuning. By the end of this journey, we aim to present a robust translation model capable of navigating the complexities of Hinglish, thus enriching the dialogue between technology and the evolving language landscape.


In this comprehensive guide, we embark on a fascinating journey to fine-tune Meta's Llama-2-7b for the intriguing task of translating English into Hinglish using the axolotl framework on Replicate. Our mission is to develop a model capable of seamlessly converting English sentences into Hinglish, a captivating hybrid language that merges elements from both Hindi and English, reflecting the dynamic linguistic landscape of the Indian subcontinent. Through the utilization of axolotl, a robust library designed for training language models, we aim to navigate the complexities of this unique linguistic fusion with finesse.

The Significance of Hinglish

Hinglish, a linguistic phenomenon that beautifully intertwines Hindi and English, has gained widespread popularity, especially among the younger demographics and urban dwellers who are proficient in both languages. This blend is not limited to verbal communication but extends to written expressions, manifesting in various digital platforms such as social media, text messages, and emails. One of the fascinating aspects of Hinglish is its reliance on the Latin alphabet, which not only simplifies typing but also enhances readability for those who are still acquainting themselves with the Hindi language. Our endeavor to fine-tune a model for Hinglish translation is not just a technical challenge but a step towards embracing and celebrating the rich tapestry of linguistic diversity.

Preparing the Groundwork

Our first step involves leveraging cog, a powerful tool that allows us to write custom training scripts for models, which we then integrate seamlessly into our cog.yaml configuration. This setup paves the way for a streamlined training process on Replicate, ensuring that our environment is equipped with all the necessary components, including support for advanced features such as flash attention and deepspeed optimization.

Crafting the Dataset

An essential element of our journey is the preparation of a custom dataset comprising English and Hinglish pairs. To accomplish this, we turn to an existing dataset on the Hugging Face Hub, which serves as a rich source of real and synthetic English-Hinglish pairs. Our task involves reformatting this dataset to align with the alpaca format, a prerequisite for axolotl training. This meticulous process involves crafting instructions, inputs, and outputs that guide the model during training, ensuring that it learns to navigate the nuances of translating from English to Hinglish with accuracy and flair.

Launching the Training Expedition

With the groundwork laid and the dataset prepared, we set forth on our training expedition on Replicate. Through the innovative use of the axolotl config file, we fine-tune the Llama-2-7b model, adjusting parameters to optimize performance for our specific task. The training process is not just about adjusting technical settings but about embarking on a journey of discovery, learning, and adaptation as we strive to bridge linguistic divides.

Embracing the Outcome

As our training reaches its culmination, we marvel at the creation of a model adept at translating English to Hinglish, a testament to the power of machine learning and language model fine-tuning. This achievement not only expands the horizons of natural language processing but also celebrates the fusion of cultures and languages, opening doors to new forms of expression and understanding.

In conclusion, this guide serves as a beacon for those fascinated by the intersection of technology and linguistics, offering a detailed roadmap for navigating the challenges and rewards of fine-tuning a language model for Hinglish translation. Through this endeavor, we not only enhance our technical prowess but also contribute to a world that values and cherishes linguistic diversity.

10 Use Cases for English to Hinglish Translation with Axolotl

The integration of English to Hinglish translation capabilities, powered by advanced models like Llama 2, can significantly impact various domains. Here, we explore ten compelling use cases where this technology can be applied to bridge communication gaps and foster inclusivity.

Social Media Engagement

Enhancing user experience on social platforms by automatically translating English posts and comments into Hinglish, enabling wider reach and inclusivity among the Indian diaspora.

Customer Support Automation

Deploying chatbots that converse in Hinglish, offering personalized and efficient customer service to a broader audience without language barriers.

Content Localization

Localizing digital content, including websites and mobile apps, into Hinglish ensures it resonates better with the target audience, increasing engagement and user retention.

Educational Resources

Creating educational materials and e-learning modules in Hinglish to cater to students who are more comfortable with this hybrid language, thereby making learning more accessible.

Entertainment Industry

Subtitling and dubbing movies, web series, and YouTube content in Hinglish, catering to a diverse viewer base and enhancing their viewing experience.

Marketing and Advertising

Crafting marketing campaigns and advertisements in Hinglish to appeal to the young and urban population, leading to better brand recall and penetration in the market.

News and Journalism

Publishing news articles and reports in Hinglish to cater to the younger demographic and urban readers, making news consumption more relatable and engaging.

E-Commerce Platforms

Facilitating smoother shopping experiences by incorporating Hinglish in product descriptions, reviews, and customer service interactions on e-commerce websites.

Literary Works

Translating books, poems, and short stories into Hinglish, opening up new dimensions in literature and making it accessible to a wider audience.

Travel and Hospitality

Enhancing the travel experience for tourists who are proficient in Hinglish by providing guides, information booklets, and assistance in this hybrid language.

Utilizing the Model in Python

In this segment of our guide, we delve into how to effectively harness the capabilities of our fine-tuned model for English to Hinglish translation using Python. This intricate process involves setting up our environment, installing necessary libraries, and executing model inference to achieve our translation objectives. The goal is to provide a clear and detailed walkthrough, ensuring even beginners can follow along and apply this model to their projects.

Setting Up Your Environment

Before we initiate the model inference process, it's crucial to prepare our Python environment. This preparation involves installing the replicate library, a pivotal tool for interacting with the model hosted on Replicate. To do this, run the following command in your terminal:

pip install replicate

This command installs the latest version of the replicate library, equipping you with the functionalities needed to interact with the model seamlessly.

Authenticating with Replicate

To access and utilize the model, authentication with Replicate is required. Authentication ensures secure access and usage of the model. Begin by retrieving your API token from your Replicate account, a necessary step for authentication. Once acquired, set this token as an environment variable using the command:

export REPLICATE_API_TOKEN='your_api_token_here'

Replace 'your_api_token_here' with your actual Replicate API token. This step is paramount for successful authentication and subsequent access to the model.

Running Model Inference

With the environment set and authenticated, we're now ready to run model inference. This process involves executing a Python script that communicates with the model, sending input and receiving the translated output. The following snippet illustrates how to accomplish this:

import replicate

# Define the model we're using
model_name = "nateraw/axolotl-llama-2-7b-english-to-hinglish"

# Set up the input for the model
input_text = {
    "prompt": "How are you doing today?",
    "do_sample": False,  # This parameter controls the randomness of the output

# Run the model and get the output
output =, input=input_text)

# Iterate over the output to display the translation
for item in output:
    print(item, end="")

In this code snippet, we first import the replicate library, which is the bridge between our Python environment and the model hosted on Replicate. We then define the model we wish to use by specifying its name. The input text is defined in a dictionary format, where "prompt" is the text we want to translate from English to Hinglish, and "do_sample" is a parameter that controls the randomness of the output, ensuring deterministic results when set to False.

The function is called with the model name and input text, initiating the inference process. The model processes the input text and returns the translated output, which we iterate through using a for loop, printing each item to display the translation.


Wrapping Up

In this comprehensive guide, we embarked on an innovative journey to fine-tune the Llama 2 model for the unique purpose of translating English into Hinglish. Utilizing the versatile axolotl library and the powerful capabilities of Replicate, we have successfully demonstrated how to customize a language model to cater to the nuanced linguistic blend that Hinglish represents. This endeavor not only showcased the flexibility of modern AI tools but also opened avenues for linguistic inclusivity in machine translation.


We have successfully navigated through the intricacies of preparing a custom dataset, setting up a conducive training environment, and executing a fine-tuning process that culminates in a model capable of understanding and translating to a hybrid language. This model stands as a testament to the potential of AI in bridging linguistic gaps and enhancing communication across diverse language speakers.

Technical Insights

The journey provided us with valuable technical insights into the process of model fine-tuning. From the initial steps of configuring our training environment to leveraging the axolotl library for its advanced features, each phase brought forth challenges and learning opportunities. The use of cog to streamline our training process and the strategic conversion of our dataset into a model-friendly format were crucial components that ensured the success of this project.

Future Directions

As we look forward, the possibilities for extending this work are vast. The model's adaptability to other hybrid languages, its application in real-world communication scenarios, and the exploration of further optimizations for improved accuracy and efficiency are exciting prospects. The foundation laid by this guide paves the way for future innovations in the field of language model fine-tuning and machine translation.

Community Engagement

Engagement with the wider AI and machine learning community will be instrumental in refining and enhancing the capabilities of our Hinglish translation model. By sharing our experiences, challenges, and successes, we invite collaboration and constructive feedback that will drive the evolution of this project. The repository is open for contributions, and we eagerly anticipate the diverse perspectives and expertise that fellow enthusiasts will bring to this endeavor.

In conclusion, this guide has not only achieved its goal of creating a functional English to Hinglish translation model but has also illuminated the path for future explorations in the realm of AI-driven language translation. The journey ahead is filled with opportunities for innovation, improvement, and impactful contributions to the field of computational linguistics. We stand on the threshold of a new era in machine translation, where the fusion of languages and cultures through AI becomes a seamless reality.