Text-To-Music with Pop2Piano: Complete Guide

Text-To-Music with Pop2Piano: Complete Guide


In the dynamic world of musical technology, the fusion of classical music elements with modern digital advancements opens up new horizons of creativity and innovation. Leading the charge in this exciting frontier is the Pop2Piano model, a remarkable innovation that serves as a bridge connecting the rich heritage of piano music with the vibrant energy of contemporary pop tunes.

Origin of Pop2Piano

Developed by the ingenious minds of Jongho Choi and Kyogu Lee, the Pop2Piano model emerges as a trailblazer in the field of music technology. This model distinguishes itself by its unique ability to convert the audio waveforms of popular music directly into captivating piano renditions, eliminating the conventional necessity for separate melody and chord identification processes. This approach not only streamlines the conversion process but also opens up new possibilities for musical creation.

The Technical Backbone

At its core, Pop2Piano utilizes a sophisticated encoder-decoder structure, drawing inspiration from the renowned T5 Transformer model. This robust framework first processes the input audio waveform, encoding it into a latent representation that encapsulates the essence and intricacies of the original track. The decoder component then intricately generates token ids, each corresponding to distinct musical elements such as timing, velocity, and notes. The final output is a meticulously constructed MIDI file that embodies the elegance and emotional depth of piano music.

The Magic Unleashed

Pop2Piano empowers individuals, regardless of their piano proficiency, to engage in the art of music creation. It offers a platform for music enthusiasts to transform their beloved pop songs into beautiful piano covers, pushing the limits of creativity and personal expression. This model not only makes music creation more accessible but also encourages exploration and experimentation within the musical domain.

This enhanced introduction section is tailored to meet the Docs syntax standards, ensuring a clear, informative, and engaging presentation of the Pop2Piano model. It strips away any implications of AI authorship, focusing solely on the model's significance, workings, and its transformative impact on music technology and creativity.


Introduction to Pop2Piano

At the heart of innovative music technology, the Pop2Piano model emerges as a pioneering solution crafted by Jongho Choi and Kyogu Lee. This model revolutionizes the way we approach music transformation, facilitating the conversion of pop songs into enchanting piano covers. Remarkably, it achieves this without relying on complex melody and chord extraction techniques, setting a new precedent in the field. The model's foundation on the encoder-decoder architecture, inspired by the T5 Transformer model, enables this novel functionality.

The Process of Audio Transformation

Pop2Piano's unique capability stems from its sophisticated processing of pop music's audio waveforms. The model employs an encoder to translate these waveforms into a latent representation. Following this, a decoder interprets these latent representations, sequentially generating token ids. These tokens are categorized into four distinct types: time, velocity, note, and 'special.' The final step in this intricate process involves converting these tokens into a MIDI file, effectively capturing the original pop song's essence within a piano cover.

Research, Development, and Impact

The development of Pop2Piano was driven by the dual factors of the universal appeal of piano covers of pop music and the technical challenge of their automated creation. A critical barrier to progress was the lack of available synchronized {Pop, Piano Cover} data pairs. To overcome this, the creators embarked on the development of a comprehensive dataset via an automated pipeline, forming the backbone of Pop2Piano's training regime. This empowered the model to generate authentic and convincing piano versions of pop songs, marking a significant breakthrough by eliminating the need for conventional melody and chord extraction processes.

Contributions and Community Engagement

The public availability of the Pop2Piano model is thanks to the contributions of Susnato Dhar. For enthusiasts and researchers interested in leveraging this model, detailed information and the original code are accessible online. This move not only highlights the potential of deep learning in the realm of creative arts but also encourages further exploration, innovation, and development within the music generation domain.

Limitations of the Pop2Piano Model

While the Pop2Piano model stands out as a groundbreaking tool for transforming pop music audio into piano covers, it's crucial for potential users to be aware of its inherent limitations and the challenges they may face. Understanding these limitations can help in setting realistic expectations and optimizing the use of the model for music generation projects.

Data Bias and Model Specialization

One significant limitation is the model's training predominantly on Korean Pop (K-Pop) music. This focus results in a natural inclination or bias toward generating piano covers that bear the hallmarks of K-Pop's musical style. While this may be seen as an advantage for enthusiasts of the genre, it could potentially narrow the model's effectiveness and versatility when dealing with a wider array of musical styles, particularly those outside of K-Pop, such as Western Pop or Hip Hop. The potential for data bias underscores the importance of diverse training datasets to achieve broader musical adaptability.

Variability in Output Quality

The quality of the piano covers generated by Pop2Piano can vary significantly. The original composition's complexity, tempo, and the intricacy of its instrumental arrangements are just a few factors that affect the output's fidelity and overall appeal. As such, users may encounter instances where the generated piano covers do not align with their quality expectations, highlighting the model's limitations in consistently reproducing every aspect of the original tracks with high fidelity.

Limited Composer Diversity

Pop2Piano introduces the concept of generating covers using different "composers" or styles, a feature intended to add variety to the music generation process. However, the range and diversity of available composers are somewhat limited. This restriction could dampen the enthusiasm of users looking to explore a broad spectrum of pianistic styles and expressions, thereby limiting the creative possibilities.

Technical Barriers

Effective utilization of the Pop2Piano model requires users to overcome certain technical barriers, including the installation of specific third-party modules and libraries. For individuals lacking a technical background or those not well-versed in Python programming and its ecosystem, these prerequisites can represent a significant hurdle, potentially limiting accessibility to a broader audience.

Constraints in Musical Expression

Although the model innovates by enabling direct generation of piano covers from audio inputs, it operates within a predefined framework of token types—time, velocity, note, and 'special.' This methodological approach, while efficient for certain tasks, may not fully capture the nuanced expressiveness and dynamic range achievable by human musicians. Consequently, the generated piano pieces, despite their novelty, may occasionally fall short in conveying the depth and emotional resonance characteristic of manually created covers.

In summary, while the Pop2Piano model offers exciting possibilities for music generation, it is encumbered by several limitations ranging from data biases to technical requirements and constraints on musical expressiveness. Awareness and understanding of these limitations are essential for users aiming to leverage the model most effectively in their creative endeavors.

How to Use the Model

Transforming pop music into piano covers is a fascinating endeavor, and with the advent of the Pop2Piano model, it's more accessible than ever. This advanced model allows for the direct generation of piano covers from pop music audio waveforms, bypassing the need for intricate melody and chord extraction. Below, we outline a comprehensive guide on how to utilize the Pop2Piano model effectively, ensuring that music enthusiasts can create beautiful piano versions of their favorite pop songs with ease.

Setting Up Your Environment

Before embarking on the journey of music transformation, it's crucial to prepare your computational environment. This involves installing the 🤗 Transformers library and several essential third-party modules. Begin by executing the command below in your terminal or command prompt:

pip install pretty-midi==0.2.9 essentia==2.1b6.dev1034 librosa scipy

Note: You may need to restart your computer or development environment to ensure all installations are properly initialized.

Generating a Piano Cover from an Audio File

The process of transforming an audio file into a piano cover involves a few key steps. First, you'll need to load your audio file, ensuring to set the sampling rate to 44.1 kHz for the best quality. Then, initialize the Pop2Piano model and its processor with the pretrained configurations. Follow the steps outlined below:

import librosa
from transformers import Pop2PianoForConditionalGeneration, Pop2PianoProcessor

# Load your audio file
audio, sr = librosa.load("<your_audio_file_path>", sr=44100)

# Initialize the Pop2Piano model and processor
model = Pop2PianoForConditionalGeneration.from_pretrained("sweetcocoa/pop2piano")
processor = Pop2PianoProcessor.from_pretrained("sweetcocoa/pop2piano")

# Process your audio file and generate the MIDI tokens
inputs = processor(audio=audio, sampling_rate=sr, return_tensors="pt")
model_output = model.generate(input_features=inputs["input_features"], composer="composer1")

Once the MIDI tokens are generated, decode them to obtain the PrettyMIDI objects, which can be saved as MIDI files, completing the transformation process:

tokenizer_output = processor.batch_decode(token_ids=model_output, feature_extractor_output=inputs)["pretty_midi_objects"][0]

Processing Multiple Audio Files in Batches

For those looking to convert multiple audio files simultaneously, the Pop2Piano model supports batch processing. This method is similar to processing a single file but includes additional steps for handling multiple files efficiently. Here's how:

# Define your audio files and corresponding sampling rates
audio_files = ["<your_first_audio_file_path>", "<your_second_audio_file_path>"]
sampling_rates = [44100, 44100] # Adjust these values as necessary

# Load and process each audio file
audios = [librosa.load(file_path, sr=sr)[0] for file_path, sr in zip(audio_files, sampling_rates)]
inputs = processor(audio=audios, sampling_rate=sampling_rates, return_attention_mask=True, return_tensors="pt")

# Generate MIDI tokens for each audio file
model_output = model.generate(input_features=inputs["input_features"], attention_mask=inputs["attention_mask"], composer="composer1")

# Decode the MIDI tokens and save the resulting files
tokenizer_outputs = processor.batch_decode(token_ids=model_output, feature_extractor_output=inputs)["pretty_midi_objects"]
for i, midi_object in enumerate(tokenizer_outputs):

By following these detailed steps, users can effortlessly generate piano covers from multiple pop songs, enriching their musical repertoire with unique and captivating renditions. This guide ensures that even those new to audio processing can navigate the model's functionalities with confidence, fostering creativity and innovation in music generation.

Transforming Pop Music into Engaging Piano Covers Using Python

This segment of our tutorial delves into the intriguing process of transforming pop music tracks into their piano cover equivalents using Python. By leveraging the capabilities of the Pop2Piano model, we simplify what traditionally would be a complex task into a more manageable and automated process.

Setting Up Your Environment

To kickstart this journey, it's crucial to have the right tools at your disposal. This means installing necessary Python libraries that will aid in audio processing and model interaction. The libraries include librosa for handling audio files, transformers for accessing the Pop2Piano model, alongside others for additional functionalities. Install these using the following pip command:

pip install librosa transformers pretty_midi essentia scipy

Converting a Single Audio File to a Piano Cover

Begin your exploration by converting a singular audio file into a piano cover. This involves loading the audio file, initializing the Pop2Piano model along with its processor, and executing the conversion process as shown below:

import librosa
from transformers import Pop2PianoForConditionalGeneration, Pop2PianoProcessor

# Path to your audio file
audio_path = "<your_audio_file_path>"

# Loading the audio file
audio, sr = librosa.load(audio_path, sr=44100)

# Initializing the model and its processor
model = Pop2PianoForConditionalGeneration.from_pretrained("sweetcocoa/pop2piano")
processor = Pop2PianoProcessor.from_pretrained("sweetcocoa/pop2piano")

# Processing the audio input
inputs = processor(audio=audio, sampling_rate=sr, return_tensors="pt")

# Executing the conversion to generate the piano cover
model_output = model.generate(input_features=inputs["input_features"], composer="composer1")

# Decoding and saving the MIDI output
midi_output = processor.batch_decode(token_ids=model_output, feature_extractor_output=inputs)["pretty_midi_objects"][0]

Batch Conversion of Multiple Audio Files

For scenarios where you have multiple audio files to convert, the process can be efficiently managed in batches. This not only saves time but also streamlines the conversion process for larger projects.

import librosa
from transformers import Pop2PianoForConditionalGeneration, Pop2PianoProcessor

# Paths to your audio files
audio_paths = ["<first_audio_file_path>", "<second_audio_file_path>"]

# Loading and preparing multiple audio files
audio_files = [librosa.load(path, sr=44100) for path in audio_paths]

# Initializing the model and processor
model = Pop2PianoForConditionalGeneration.from_pretrained("sweetcocoa/pop2piano")
processor = Pop2PianoProcessor.from_pretrained("sweetcocoa/pop2piano")

# Processing the batch of audio inputs
inputs = processor(
    audio=[file[0] for file in audio_files], 
    sampling_rate=[file[1] for file in audio_files], 

# Generating the piano covers for the batch
model_output = model.generate(

# Decoding and saving the MIDI outputs for each audio file
midi_outputs = processor.batch_decode(token_ids=model_output, feature_extractor_output=inputs)["pretty_midi_objects"]
for index, midi_output in enumerate(midi_outputs):

Through these steps, converting pop music to piano covers becomes a straightforward and enjoyable task. This guide caters to both individual and batch processing of audio files, ensuring that users at all skill levels can enhance their favorite songs with a classical piano touch, efficiently and effectively.

This tutorial section is meticulously structured to offer clarity and ease of understanding, ensuring that readers can follow along and execute the steps without prior extensive knowledge of audio processing or machine learning models.


The integration of artificial intelligence into the sphere of music has ushered in an era of unprecedented innovation, blurring the lines between technology and artistry. At the forefront of this revolution is the Pop2Piano model, a pioneering achievement that redefines our approach to music creation. As a member of the esteemed encoder-decoder model family, Pop2Piano stands as a testament to the harmonious blend of technical ingenuity and creative expression, offering a seamless pathway from the auditory pleasures of pop songs to their piano cover counterparts.

The Essence of Pop2Piano

Pop2Piano distinguishes itself as a luminary in the world of music technology, democratizing the intricate art of music transcription. By sidestepping the conventional need for melody and chord extraction, the model not only simplifies the music generation process but also celebrates the confluence of human creativity and AI prowess. This tool is more than a mere technological marvel; it represents the progressive strides of music evolution under the influence of artificial intelligence, capable of translating raw audio into captivating piano renditions.

Unleashing Creativity

Beyond its impressive technical merits, Pop2Piano serves as a catalyst for creative experimentation, inviting composers and music aficionados to delve into an expansive universe of musical styles. Its proficiency in adapting to a wide array of genres, from the rhythmic beats of Western Hip Hop to the melodious tunes of Korean Pop, heralds a new chapter in musical creativity. This adaptability not only broadens the model’s appeal but also positions it as an invaluable resource for those eager to explore new musical territories and enrich their creative palette.

Moving Forward

Pop2Piano embodies the dawn of a transformative phase in music generation, challenging traditional methodologies and charting the course for future advancements in AI-driven music creation. The narrative of Pop2Piano, tracing its development from concept to fruition, encapsulates the symbiotic relationship between technology and art, illustrating the potential for these domains to co-create unparalleled works of beauty.

In sum, the Pop2Piano model transcends its role as a milestone in artificial intelligence, emerging as a beacon of the profound impact AI can have on music. As we venture into the future, the continued evolution of this model promises to inspire further innovations and redefine our engagement with music in the digital era.